Power is the ability to influence or control others to achieve desired outcomes. It is a dynamic aspect of human interaction and can be manifested in various forms, such as political, economic, or social power.

Power often involves the exertion of influence or authority to shape events, decisions, or behaviors.

(i) Legitimate Authority: This refers to power recognized and accepted as legitimate by the people being governed. It is typically based on constitutional or traditional norms that establish a clear hierarchy of authority.

(ii) Physical Coercion: Using force or violence to control others is a rudimentary source of power, often seen in authoritarian or totalitarian regimes.

(ii) Control of Resources: Access to and distribution of resources, such as wealth, weapons, or information, can grant significant political power.

Control over scarce or essential resources can enable individuals or groups to influence others.
(iv) Skill and Expertise: Possessing specialized knowledge or skills can give individuals an advantage in political negotiations or decision-making processes.

This type of power is often seen in technocrats or experts advising governments.
(v) Ideology and Beliefs: Persuading others to adopt a particular set of values, beliefs, or ideologies can create a loyal following and provide political power.

Demagogues or charismatic leaders often use this strategy to gain support.
(vi) Social Networks: Building and maintaining strong social connections, establishing alliances, and leveraging social capital can enhance political power.

(vii) Electoral Mandates: Winning elections through popular vote gives politicians a legitimate claim to power and the ability to make decisions on behalf of the electorate.



Franchise refers to the right of citizens to participate in the electoral process by casting votes to elect their representatives or decide on public policies.

(i) Age: Candidates must have attained the legal voting age, which varies from country to country. In most democracies, it is typically 18 years.

(ii) Citizenship: Candidates must be citizens of the country or have the right of residence.

(iii) Residence: Candidates must reside in or be registered as a voter in the electoral constituency where they intend to vote.
(iv) Mental Capacity: Candidates must be of sound mind and capable of understanding the voting process.

(v) Not Disqualified: Candidates must not be disqualified from voting due to reasons such as criminal convictions, certain mental disabilities, or non-payment of taxes.

(vi) Registration: Candidates must be registered as voters with the appropriate electoral body.

(vii) No Impediments: Candidates must not be subject to any legal or administrative barriers, such as travel restrictions or detention, that would prevent them from exercising their voting rights.



Public opinion refers to the collective views, attitudes, and beliefs held by a significant portion of the population on a particular issue or matter. It represents the aggregate of individual opinions and is often shaped by various factors such as media, political discourse, social norms, and personal experiences.

(i) Limited Information: Public opinion can be unreliable if it is based on incomplete or inaccurate information. Individuals may form opinions without having all the necessary facts or may be influenced by misinformation or propaganda.

(ii) Cognitive Biases: Human cognition is prone to biases that can distort public opinion. These biases include confirmation bias, where people seek information that confirms their existing beliefs, and groupthink, where individuals suppress their own opinions to conform to the group.

(iii) Media Manipulation: The media can significantly influence public opinion by selectively presenting information, framing issues in a particular way, and promoting certain narratives. Media bias or manipulation can result in distorted or incomplete public opinion.
(iv) Emotional Appeals: Public opinion can be swayed by emotional appeals and rhetoric, even if they are not based on logic or facts. Demagogues and populists often use emotional language and appeals to fear or anger to manipulate public opinion.

(v) Social Identity: Individual opinions can be influenced by their social identities, such as race, gender, religion, or political affiliation. People tend to align their opinions with the views of their social groups, which can lead to polarization and division.

(vi) Mob Mentality: In certain situations, public opinion can become amplified and irrational due to group dynamics. Mass gatherings, social media, and online echo chambers can contribute to a mob mentality where individuals conform to the majority opinion without critical thinking.

(vii) Lack of Participation: Public opinion may not be representative if a significant portion of the population does not participate in the formation of opinions or the expression of those opinions. Limited voter turnout or unequal access to media and public discourse can result in unreliable public opinion.



Electoral Constituency: An electoral constituency is a geographic area or district that is represented by one or more elected officials. Voters within a constituency elect their representatives to legislative bodies, such as parliaments or councils. Constituencies are typically designed to ensure that all citizens have equal representation and that their voices are heard in the decision-making process.

Plurality System: A plurality system is an electoral system in which the candidate who receives the most votes wins, even if they do not receive a majority (more than 50%) of the votes cast. In a plurality system, voters cast a single vote for their preferred candidate. The candidate with the highest number of votes wins, even if they receive less than 50% of the total votes. Plurality systems are used in many countries, including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada.

Electoral Malpractice: Electoral malpractice refers to any illegal or unethical activity that interferes with the integrity of an election. It can include activities such as voter fraud, ballot stuffing, vote buying, intimidation of voters, and manipulation of election results. Electoral malpractice undermines the democratic process and can lead to the election of candidates who do not represent the will of the people.

Impeachment: Impeachment is a process by which a legislative body, such as a parliament or congress, brings charges against a high-ranking government official, typically the president or a judge. Impeachment is usually initiated if the official is suspected of committing serious crimes or misconduct while in office. If the official is impeached, they may be removed from office through a subsequent trial and conviction. Impeachment is a rare occurrence and is reserved for the most serious cases of official misconduct.



(i) Economic Growth: Trade and investment allow countries to specialize in producing goods and services they have a comparative advantage, leading to increased efficiency and economic growth.

(ii) Access to Resources: Countries can access raw materials, technology, and expertise they lack domestically, promoting development and innovation.

(iii) Cultural Exchange: Interaction fosters cultural understanding, diversity, and appreciation, promoting tolerance and empathy.

(iv) Political Stability: Diplomatic relations and cooperation can prevent conflicts and facilitate peaceful resolutions, ensuring stability.

(v) Technological Advancements: Collaboration with other nations allows for the exchange of ideas, research, and innovation, leading to technological progress.
(vi) Tourism and Employment: International travel and trade create new industries and employment opportunities in tourism, hospitality, and transportation.

(vii) Environmental Protection: Global collaborations are crucial for addressing transboundary environmental issues such as climate change and pollution, protecting the well-being of all nations.

(viii) Learning from Best Practices: Interacting with other countries allows governments and organizations to learn from their successes and challenges, improving policy and governance.



(i) Regional Political Instability: The crisis fueled tensions between the Western and Eastern regions of Nigeria, leading to a threat to national unity.

(ii) Polarization of Nigerian Politics: The crisis deepened the divisions between the major political parties, the Action Group and the Northern People’s Congress.

(iii) Suspension of Democracy: The federal government declared a state of emergency in the Western Region, suspending democratic institutions and civil liberties.
(iv) Human Rights Abuses: The military crackdown on the Action Group supporters resulted in detention, violence, and fatalities, violating human rights.

(v) Economic Struggles: The political instability and disruption caused by the crisis had negative consequences for the region’s economy.

(vi) Military Intervention in Politics: The crisis reinforced the role of the military in Nigerian politics, setting a precedent for future interventions.

(vii) Constitutional Revisions: The crisis led to the introduction of sweeping constitutional amendments aimed at reducing the powers of regional governments.

(viii) Erosion of Public Trust: The mishandling of the crisis by the government undermined public trust in the political system and institutions.



(i) Village Republic: The Igbo society was organized into autonomous villages, each with its own republican form of government. The village was the smallest unit of political administration, and decisions were made through community consensus in the village square.

(ii) Age-Grade System: The Igbo had an age-grade system where men of similar ages were grouped together. These age grades played a significant role in governance, as they served as a form of social organization and helped in decision-making processes.

(iii) Lineage and Clan System: Igbo communities were organized along kinship lines, with lineage and clan playing a crucial role in governance. Lineage heads and clan leaders held power and made decisions for the group based on consensus and traditional norms.

(iv) Ofo System: The Ofo symbolized authority and justice in Igbo society. The Ofo council, made up of respected elders, wielded significant political power and settled disputes within the community.

(v) Title System: Igbo society had a system of chieftaincy titles that conferred authority and responsibilities on individuals within the community. Titleholders acted as custodians of tradition, settling disputes and maintaining order.

(vi) Secret Societies: Secret societies such as the Ekpe and Okonko played a vital role in Igbo political administration. They served as channels for social control, conflict resolution, and community development.

(vii) Market Councils: Markets were essential hubs of economic and social activities in Igbo society. Market councils made up of traders and community leaders oversaw market operations and resolved disputes among traders.

(viii) Council of Elders: In addition to these structures, councils of elders comprised of respected individuals provided guidance and leadership in Igbo communities. The wisdom and experience of elders were highly valued in decision-making processes.



(i) Custodians of Culture and Tradition: Traditional rulers serve as custodians of cultural heritage and tradition, preserving and promoting local customs, values, and practices that form the foundation of Nigerian society.

(ii) Conflict Resolution: Traditional rulers have a long history of mediating disputes and conflicts within their communities, using their wisdom, authority, and respect to promote peace and harmony among the people.

(iii) Community Development: Traditional rulers play vital roles in fostering community development initiatives, such as infrastructure projects, healthcare programs, education schemes, and empowerment projects to improve the living standards of their subjects.

(iv) Representation: Traditional rulers act as representatives of their communities in interactions with government authorities, advocating for the needs and interests of their people at local, state, and national levels.

(v) Social Cohesion: Traditional rulers promote unity and social cohesion among diverse ethnic and religious groups within their domains, fostering a sense of belonging and solidarity among the people.

(vi) Grassroots Governance: Traditional rulers serve as the link between the government and grassroots communities, providing valuable insights, feedback, and perspectives on development challenges and priorities.

(vii) Cultural Diplomacy: Traditional rulers play roles in cultural diplomacy, promoting cultural exchange, understanding, and cooperation between different communities, both within Nigeria and with other countries.

(viii) Moral Authority: Traditional rulers are often regarded as symbols of moral authority, integrity, and leadership, setting examples of ethical conduct and good governance for both their subjects and political leaders.



(i) Setting the UN Agenda: The General Assembly sets the agenda for discussions and actions on global challenges, peace and security, sustainable development, human rights, and other important issues affecting the international community.

(ii) General Debates: The General Assembly hosts annual general debates where world leaders, including heads of state and government, share their views on key global issues, priorities, and solutions. These debates offer a platform for global dialogue and diplomacy.

(iii) Adoption of Resolutions: The General Assembly adopts resolutions on a wide range of issues, including peace and security, development, human rights, climate change, and disarmament. These resolutions provide guidance and recommendations for member states and the UN system.

(iv) Budget Approval: The General Assembly approves the UN regular budget and budgets for UN peacekeeping missions. It reviews and allocates resources for UN programs, activities, and operations to ensure effective and efficient use of funds.

(v) Election of Member States: The General Assembly elects member states to various UN bodies, such as the Security Council, Economic and Social Council, and Human Rights Council. These elections help shape the work and membership of key UN entities.

(vi) Cultural and Educational Activities: The General Assembly supports cultural and educational activities through initiatives like the International Day of Peace, World Health Day, and International Day of Happiness, promoting global awareness and cooperation.

(vii) Special Sessions and High-Level Meetings: The General Assembly convenes special sessions and high-level meetings on specific issues, such as climate change, sustainable development goals, and humanitarian crises, to generate political momentum, mobilize resources, and drive collective action.

(viii) Review and Monitoring: The General Assembly conducts reviews and monitoring of global progress on key agendas, such as the Sustainable Development Goals, peacebuilding efforts, and human rights implementation, to assess achievements, identify gaps, and guide future actions.



(i) Service Delivery: Local government councils are responsible for providing essential services to their residents, such as waste management, water supply, sanitation, local roads, public transportation, and parks. They play a direct role in meeting the everyday needs of communities.
(ii) Infrastructure Development: Local government councils oversee the planning, development, and maintenance of local infrastructure, including roads, bridges, schools, healthcare facilities, and recreational areas. They work to improve the quality of life for residents and enhance economic opportunities within their jurisdictions.
(iii) Urban Planning and Zoning: Local government councils are responsible for urban planning and zoning regulations, including land use planning, building codes, and development permits. They help to manage growth, preserve green spaces, and ensure sustainable development in their communities.
(iv) Community Development: Local government councils support community development initiatives, such as affordable housing programs, job training, small business support, and cultural events. They promote social cohesion, economic prosperity, and civic engagement among residents.
(v) Public Health and Safety: Local government councils play a role in promoting public health and safety by implementing regulations on food hygiene, sanitation, pest control, and emergency services. They work to protect the well-being of residents and respond to health crises and emergencies.
(vi) Local Governance and Representation: Local government councils serve as representatives of local interests and voices within the broader political system. They engage with residents, community groups, and stakeholders to address concerns, advocate for needs, and foster democratic participation.
(vii) Revenue Generation and Budgeting: Local government councils manage their finances through revenue generation, including property taxes, user fees, grants, and intergovernmental transfers. They prepare budgets, allocate resources, and prioritize spending to meet local priorities and needs.
(viii) Partnerships and Collaboration: Local government councils collaborate with other levels of government, non-governmental organizations, businesses, and community groups to address complex issues and leverage resources. They engage in partnerships to tackle shared challenges, promote innovation, and achieve collective goals.


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