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Neco 2024 Data Processing Answers (Practical) (July Exam)

Neco 2024 Data Processing Answers Available Now Free

Thursday 11th July

Practical – Data Processing 3 hrs 10:00 am – 1:00 pm

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2024 NECO DATA PROCESSING ANSWERS

(3bii)
(a)A hierarchical database is a type of database that organizes data in a tree-like structure, with each record having a single parent record and multiple child records. This structure is similar to a file system, where directories and subdirectories are organized in a hierarchical manner.

KEY FEATURES OF HIERARCHICAL DATABASES:

(i)Data is organized in a tree-like structure
(ii)Each record has a single parent record and multiple child records
(iii)Relationships between records are represented as links between nodes
(iv)Data is stored in a series of segments, each containing a group of related records
(v)Supports fast data retrieval and efficient data storage

EXAMPLES OF HIERARCHICAL

(i)IBM’s IMS (Information Management System)
(ii) Windows Registry
(iii) XML (Extensible Markup Language) documents

(B) A network database is a type of database that organizes data as a network of interconnected records, allowing for multiple relationships between records. This model was developed to overcome the limitations of hierarchical databases.

IN A NETWORK DATABASE:

(i)Data is stored as a collection of records, called nodes or segments
(ii)Each record has multiple parents and children, forming a web-like structure
(iii)Relationships between records are represented as links or pointers
(iv)Each record can have multiple owners and multiple members.

FEATURES OF NETWORK DATABASES

(i)Multiple relationships between records
(ii)Flexible data modeling
(iii)Efficient data storage and retrieval
(iv)Support for large-scale applications

EXAMPLES OF NETWORK DATABASES

(i)IDS (Integrated Data Store)
(ii)IDMS (Integrated Database Management System)
(iii)Network models like the CODASYL (Conference on Data Systems Languages) model

(C) A relational database is a type of database that organizes data into one or more tables, with each table having rows and columns, similar to an Excel spreadsheet. Each row represents a single record, and each column represents a field or attribute of that record.

IN A RELATIONAL DATABASE:

(i)Data is stored in tables, with each table having a unique name
(ii)Each table has rows (records) and columns (fields)
(ii)Data is manipulated using SQL (Structured Query Language)

Also Relational databases follow the relational model, which was introduced by Edgar F. Codd in 1970. The model is based on the concept of relational algebra, which uses mathematical operations to manipulate data.

FEATURES OF RELATIONAL DATABASES ARE:

(i)Data normalization
(ii)Data integrity
(iii)Data consistency
(iv)Support for querying using SQL

EXAMPLES OF RELATIONAL DATABASES

(i)MySQL
(ii)PostgreSQL
(iii)Microsoft SQL Server
(iv)Oracle.

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